Substreams triggers allow you to embed Substreams data directly in your subgraph. Essentially, you import the Protobufs emitted by your Substreams module and you receive the data in the handler of your subgraph.

For example, consider that you want to consume the transactions emitted by the map_filter_transactions module of the Ethereum Explorer Substreams. With Substreams triggers, you can define a special subgraph handler that imports the Protobuf object and lets you manipulate the data just like a usual AssemblyScript object.

The Protobuf used in the map_filter_transactions module is the following:

syntax = "proto3";

package eth.transaction.v1;

message Transactions {
  repeated Transaction transactions = 1;

message Transaction {
  string from = 1;
  string to = 2;
  string hash = 3;

You can generate the previous Protobuf in AssemblyScript and import it as part of your subgraph in a special handler:

export function handleTransactions(bytes: Uint8Array): void {
    let transactions = assembly.eth.transaction.v1.Transactions.decode(bytes.buffer).trasanctions; // 1.
    if (transactions.length == 0) {"No transactions found", []);

    for (let i = 0; i < transactions.length; i++) { // 2.
        let transaction = transactions[i];

        let entity = new Transaction(transaction.hash); // 3.
        entity.from = transaction.from; =;;
  1. You decode the bytes (which contains the Substreams data) into the generated object, Transactions. Now you can use the object like any other AssemblyScript object.

  2. Loop over the transactions

  3. Create a new subgraph entity for every transaction.

Tutorial: Import the Substreams Explorer package transactions into a subgraph

Following the previous example, the Substreams Sink Examples repository, contains a subgraph importing the transactions through Substreams triggers. Clone the repository and move to the subgraph-triggers-transactions. To run this tutorial you will need:

  • The Graph CLI, to build and deploy the subgraph.

  • Node (>17) and NPM installed.

  • The buf command installed, to generate the Protobuf schemas.

Install the Dependencies

If you are familiar with subgraphs, then the structure of the project should be easy to understand:

// image

  1. The proto folder contains the Protobuf definitions of your Substreams (i.e. the definitions you want to import into the subgraph).

  2. The src folder contains the source code. Mainly, the mapping.ts file with the handlers and the pb folder with the generated TS code for the Protobuf.

  3. Currently, it is necessary to have the Substreams package (spkg) that you want to import in your filesystem, so that you subgraph can read it.

  • To get started, install the dependencies of the project:

npm install
  • Generate the Substreams Protobufs:

buf generate --exclude-path="sf/substreams" --type="eth.transaction.v1.Transactions" ethereum-explorer-v0.1.2.spkg#format=bin

The previous command generates the Substreams Protobuf contained in the ethereum-explorer-v0.1.2.spkg package. In this example, you only want to import the eth.transaction.v1.Transactions object.

The Protobuf object is generated in AssemblyScript, so you can import it in the subgraph code.

  • Generate the subgraph schema:

graph codegen

Inspect the Code

  • The subgraph.yaml file defines the Substreams triggers as a data source. The subgraph will be deploy on Ethereum Mainnet (mainnet).

specVersion: 1.0.0
  prune: auto
  file: ./schema.graphql
  - kind: substreams
    name: Transaction
    network: mainnet # Ethereum mainnet
      startBlock: 17239000
        moduleName: map_filter_transactions # Module name
        file: ethereum-explorer-v0.1.2.spkg # Package
      apiVersion: 0.0.7
      kind: substreams/graph-entities
      file: ./src/mapping.ts # Path of the mapping file.
      handler: handleTransactions # Name of the handler function of the trigger
  • The src/mapping.ts contains the handler of the trigger, handleTransactions:

import { log } from "@graphprotocol/graph-ts";
import * as assembly from "./pb/assembly"; // 1.
import { Transaction } from "../generated/schema"; // 2.

export function handleTransactions(bytes: Uint8Array): void {
    let transactions = assembly.eth.transaction.v1.Transactions.decode(bytes.buffer).transactions;
    if (transactions.length == 0) {"No transactions found", []);

    for (let i = 0; i < transactions.length; i++) {
        let transaction = transactions[i];

        let entity = new Transaction(transaction.hash);
        entity.from = transaction.from; =;;
  1. Import the generated Substreams Protobuf.

  2. Import the generated GraphQL schema.

  3. Decode the Substreams Protobuf.

  4. Create and save the subgraph entity.

Build and Deploy the Subgraph

To test the application, you can deploy the subgraph to The Graph Studio. You must create an account and authentication your computer first. The official documentation covers the steps needed to deploy a subgraph to the Studio.

  • Build the subgraph:

graph build
  • Deploy the subgraph:

graph deploy

Now, you can access and query the subgraph in the Studio.

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